Today, the fashion parade is going on, in all multi-specialty hospitals (which resemble star hotels) to have the so-called Master Health Check- Up, which usually includes measuring pulse, blood pressure, analyzing lung with X-ray-chest, heart with ECG & abdomen with ultra sound scan and correlating all data with the investigations of blood & urine. X-ray, ECG, Ultrasound scan need some skillful intelligence in their corresponding field, to study or read it, where as the blood pressure & pulse rate are now given as meter reading by readily available electronic devices.
Master Health Check-Up aims at finding out or tracing the disease, in the initial period and to treat or cure it, at that stage itself. Usually after hearing the words “every thing is within normal limits & nothing to worry” from the doctor, the patient mostly feels refreshed and gets rid of tiredness or diseases. These words usually give much support to the patient morally. It is also an Art of Healing. Due to this habit, sometimes, even if doctor doesn’t prescribe any lab diagnosis, a patient voluntarily asks for the same and satisfies himself with the result, if found to be normal.
Invention of physics & chemistry are not a treasure to any particular system of medicine. It is dedicated to the world, by the scientists for the welfare of patients and also for the advancement of the medical world. Every one should thank the researchers who were behind these inventions of instruments or devices or tests. No one can deny the importance of laboratory investigations in diagnosis & assessment of prognosis and in monitoring the betterment. Revolutionary physics and blasting chemistry make for medical advancement as Bio-physics or as Bio-chemistry which finally came to e-medicine also.
The lab reports evaluated with bio-chemistry are usually given in printed form to the patients. Some times the normal values or reference values are clearly given in the reports themselves. Sometimes, the report goes directly to the doctor, who is capable of reading it, without any reference values. Normal range for any individual varies with age, sex, time, device used, solvents or kit used, sample collecting techniques (after fasting, before fasting), analyser. Generally variations are accepted widely, as blood pressure varies according to the situation, diet, familial tendency, exercises & moods. The same thing is for pulse and others tests also. Like wise, some women have periods every 28 days which is said to be normal for females, but some would have it for every 30 days, some would have every 26 days, and some would have every 35 days. These are all normal to them unless otherwise felt as a problem. i.e. each and every individual has individual normal values. Against these average or normal values, borderline variations can be always accepted, but a major difference should be evaluated seriously.
In homeopathy, diagnosis with lab investigations and causative factor (bacteria or virus) are not given much importance, since medicines do not act against disease or kill bacteria or virus directly. Homeopathy treats the patient symptoms in all ways to gain resistance or immunity. For selecting the right drug, (for that patient not for the disease) it gives importance to character of onset of symptoms, its aggravating or precipitating factors, and characteristic symptoms of patient rather than disease symptoms, exciting cause, thirst, sweat, shivering, appetite, sleep, stool habit, urination, mental restlessness, associated symptoms and relieving factors. Homeopathy claims that cure and comfort feeling can only be felt by the patient and cannot be examined or diagnosed by doctor or lab findings. So homeopathy gives much importance to patients rather than diseases. But it is not against investigation which guides us about the progress or regress of the complaints or diseases. Finally and firmly, an abnormal lab result will indicate to us about the diseases.
Normal Pulse rate – 72- 80 / min at rest (it is equivalent to heart rate). It is usually measured in radial artery in wrist. It gives idea about the circulation.
Normal Blood pressure – usually measured in arm i.e. brachial artery. Also sometimes it is measured in thigh i.e. femoral artery. Nowadays, it is also measured in fingers or wrist by advanced electronic devices. The measurement of blood pressure is a very simple technique, but it provides lot of information, about the heart and the blood vessels. The normal average systolic pressure varies from 110-130mms of Hg. The normal average diastolic pressure varies from 70-90 mms of Hg. So normally blood pressure as such, varies in person from 110/70 to 130/90 mmHg.
NORMAL LABORATORY VALUES (Averages)
HAEMOTOLOGY – Blood cellular elements
Hb or Haemoglobin
- Male—13.5-17.0 Gms%
- Female–12.0-15.5 Gms%
- Male 4.5 to 6.0 million / cu. mm
- Women: 4.2 to 5.4 million / cu. mm.
- Range from 4,000 – 11,000/ cu. mm.
- Neutrophils or Polymorphs 50 – 60%
- Lymphocytes 30 – 50%
- Eosinophils 2 – 5%
- Monocytes 2 – 4%
- Basophils 0 – 1%
- Absolute Eosinophil Count – 40 – 440 cells / cu. mm.
- Male- 40- 50 %
- Female- 38- 45 %
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 32-36 %
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 76-96 Cu. mm.
Reticulocyte count – 0.5 – 2.0%
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
- Male- <15mm in 1 hour
- Female – < 20 mm in 1 hour
- Bleeding time – 2 – 6 minutes
- Clotting time – 3 – 9 minutes
- Prothrombin time -12-16 s
(pH- hydrogen ion concentration which helps in denoting acidity or alkalinity of the solution (variation from 1- 14 i.e. from most acid to most alkali)
- Serum Sodium – 135 -145mEq / L
- Serum Potassium – 3.5 – 5.5mEq / L
- Serum Chloride – 98 -106mEq / L
- Serum Bicarbonate – 22 -26mEq / L
- Serum Lithium – 0.2 -1.0mEq / L
LIVER FUNCTION TEST
Total Serum Protein: 7.0 – 8.0Gms. %
- Albumin: 4.0 – 6.0Gms. %
- Globulin: 2.0 – 4.0Gms. %
- Direct Bilirubin: < 0.3 Mg /dl
- Indirect Bilirubin: < 0.5 Mg /dl
Serum Lactic Dehydrogenase: 60- 320 U/L
SGOT or Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) – 5 – 40 U/L
SGPT or Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) – 5 – 35 U/L
- Fasting: 70 -110 Mg / dl
- Post prandial (i.e. after food -1 ¾ hours):100 -140 Mg / dl
- Serum Cholesterol: 150 – 240 Mg / dl
Serum Creatinine: 0.8 – 1.4 Mg / dl
Serum Uric acid: 3.0 – 7.0 Mg / dl
Serum Calcium: 8.5 – 11.0 Mg / dl
Serum Phosphorus: 3.5 – 5.5 Mg / dl
Serum Amylase- 25 – 90U/L
Serum Copper-70 – 150 Mg / dl
C-reactive protein – <10 mg/L
Creatine kinase (CPK)
- Male- < 170 U/L
- Female < 130 U/L
- Male -60 -170 µg / L
- Female – 50 – 130 µg / L
- Male -11-50 U/L
- Female – 07-32 U/L
- IgA – 0.8 – 4 g/L
- IgG -5.5 – 16.5 g/L
- IgM -0.4 – 2.0 g/L
LIPIDS PROFILE should be done after 12 hours fasting
- Serum total Cholesterol – 150 – 240 mg / dl
- Serum Triglycerides – 70 – 150 mg / dl
- Serum HDL cholesterol – 30 -70 mg / dl
- Serum LDL cholesterol – 70 -130 mg / dl
- Serum VLDL cholesterol – 20 – 40 mg / dl
Calcium- 0 – 300 mg / 24 hours
Protein – <0.15 g / 24 hours
pH – 5.0 – 8.0
Specific Gravity – 1.001 – 1.035
RBC’s, WBC’s, Pus cells should be Nil
SUGAR TEST IN URINE should be done after 2 hours of food intake. Also collecting of mid-stream urine is important for accurate analysis. Presence of sugar is analyzed by two methods now, i.e. one by old benedict’s reagents and another by latest dipsticks. In case of Benedict’s test, if results shows
- Blue colour – Nil
- Green colour – + (0.1- 0.5 g/dl)
- Yellow colour – ++ (0.5- 1.0 g/dl)
- Orange colour – +++ (1.0- 1.5 g/dl)
- Brick red colour – ++++ (1.5- 2.0 g/dl)
(Disclaimer: The contents of this column are for informational purpose only. The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional healthcare advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of healthcare professional for any health problem or medical condition.)