Normal Values (Physiological) Medical facts

Physiology Facts



Today, the fashion parade is going on, in all multi-specialty hospitals (which resemble star hotels) to have the so-called Master Health Check- Up, which usually includes measuring pulse, blood pressure, analyzing lung with X-ray-chest, heart with ECG & abdomen with ultra sound scan and correlating all data with the investigations of blood & urine. X-ray, ECG, Ultrasound scan need some skillful intelligence in their corresponding field, to study or read it, where as the blood pressure & pulse rate are now given as meter reading by readily available electronic devices.
Master Health Check-Up aims at finding out or tracing the disease, in the initial period and to treat or cure it, at that stage itself. Usually after hearing the words “every thing is within normal limits & nothing to worry” from the doctor, the patient mostly feels refreshed and gets rid of tiredness or diseases. These words usually give much support to the patient morally. It is also an Art of Healing. Due to this habit, sometimes, even if doctor doesn’t prescribe any lab diagnosis, a patient voluntarily asks for the same and satisfies himself with the result, if found to be normal.
Invention of physics & chemistry are not a treasure to any particular system of medicine. It is dedicated to the world, by the scientists for the welfare of patients and also for the advancement of the medical world. Every one should thank the researchers who were behind these inventions of instruments or devices or tests. No one can deny the importance of laboratory investigations in diagnosis & assessment of prognosis and in monitoring the betterment. Revolutionary physics and blasting chemistry make for medical advancement as Bio-physics or as Bio-chemistry which finally came to e-medicine also.

The lab reports evaluated with bio-chemistry are usually given in printed form to the patients. Some times the normal values or reference values are clearly given in the reports themselves. Sometimes, the report goes directly to the doctor, who is capable of reading it, without any reference values. Normal range for any individual varies with age, sex, time, device used, solvents or kit used, sample collecting techniques (after fasting, before fasting), analyser. Generally variations are accepted widely, as blood pressure varies according to the situation, diet, familial tendency, exercises & moods. The same thing is for pulse and others tests also. Like wise, some women have periods every 28 days which is said to be normal for females, but some would have it for every 30 days, some would have every 26 days, and some would have every 35 days. These are all normal to them unless otherwise felt as a problem. i.e. each and every individual has individual normal values. Against these average or normal values, borderline variations can be always accepted, but a major difference should be evaluated seriously.

In homeopathy, diagnosis with lab investigations and causative factor (bacteria or virus) are not given much importance, since medicines do not act against disease or kill bacteria or virus directly. Homeopathy treats the patient symptoms in all ways to gain resistance or immunity. For selecting the right drug, (for that patient not for the disease) it gives importance to character of onset of symptoms, its aggravating or precipitating factors, and characteristic symptoms of patient rather than disease symptoms, exciting cause, thirst, sweat, shivering, appetite, sleep, stool habit, urination, mental restlessness, associated symptoms and relieving factors. Homeopathy claims that cure and comfort feeling can only be felt by the patient and cannot be examined or diagnosed by doctor or lab findings. So homeopathy gives much importance to patients rather than diseases. But it is not against investigation which guides us about the progress or regress of the complaints or diseases. Finally and firmly, an abnormal lab result will indicate to us about the diseases.

Normal Pulse rate – 72- 80 / min at rest (it is equivalent to heart rate). It is usually measured in radial artery in wrist. It gives idea about the circulation.
Normal Blood pressure – usually measured in arm i.e. brachial artery. Also sometimes it is measured in thigh i.e. femoral artery. Nowadays, it is also measured in fingers or wrist by advanced electronic devices. The measurement of blood pressure is a very simple technique, but it provides lot of information, about the heart and the blood vessels. The normal average systolic pressure varies from 110-130mms of Hg. The normal average diastolic pressure varies from 70-90 mms of Hg. So normally blood pressure as such, varies in person from 110/70 to 130/90 mmHg.


NORMAL LABORATORY VALUES (Averages)
HAEMOTOLOGY – Blood cellular elements
Hb or Haemoglobin




  • Male—13.5-17.0 Gms%
  • Female–12.0-15.5 Gms%
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
  • Male 4.5 to 6.0 million / cu. mm
  • Women: 4.2 to 5.4 million / cu. mm.
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
  • Range from 4,000 – 11,000/ cu. mm.
Evaluating each type separately
  • Neutrophils or Polymorphs 50 – 60%
  • Lymphocytes 30 – 50%
  • Eosinophils 2 – 5%
  • Monocytes 2 – 4%
  • Basophils 0 – 1%
  • Absolute Eosinophil Count – 40 – 440 cells / cu. mm.
Packed cell volume (PCV)
  • Male- 40- 50 %
  • Female- 38- 45 %
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) 27-31 pg
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 32-36 %
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 76-96 Cu. mm.
Reticulocyte count – 0.5 – 2.0%
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  • Male- <15mm in 1 hour
  • Female – < 20 mm in 1 hour
Platelet count – 1.5 -4.5 lakhs / cu. mm.
Coagulation
  • Bleeding time – 2 – 6 minutes
  • Clotting time – 3 – 9 minutes
  • Prothrombin time -12-16 s
Blood pH – 7.35-7.45 (venous – artery)
(pH- hydrogen ion concentration which helps in denoting acidity or alkalinity of the solution (variation from 1- 14 i.e. from most acid to most alkali)
ELECTROLYTES
  • Serum Sodium – 135 -145mEq / L
  • Serum Potassium – 3.5 – 5.5mEq / L
  • Serum Chloride – 98 -106mEq / L
  • Serum Bicarbonate – 22 -26mEq / L
  • Serum Lithium – 0.2 -1.0mEq / L

LIVER FUNCTION TEST




Total Serum Protein: 7.0 – 8.0Gms. %
  • Albumin: 4.0 – 6.0Gms. %
  • Globulin: 2.0 – 4.0Gms. %
Total Serum Bilirubin: 0.3 to 1.0 Mg /dl
  • Direct Bilirubin: < 0.3 Mg /dl
  • Indirect Bilirubin: < 0.5 Mg /dl
Serum Alkaline Phosphatase: 25-90. U/L
Serum Lactic Dehydrogenase: 60- 320 U/L
SGOT or Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) – 5 – 40 U/L
SGPT or Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) – 5 – 35 U/L
Biochemistry
Blood Glucose
  • Fasting: 70 -110 Mg / dl
  • Post prandial (i.e. after food -1 ¾ hours):100 -140 Mg / dl
Blood Urea -15 – 40 Mg / dl
  • Serum Cholesterol: 150 – 240 Mg / dl
    Serum Creatinine: 0.8 – 1.4 Mg / dl
    Serum Uric acid: 3.0 – 7.0 Mg / dl
    Serum Calcium: 8.5 – 11.0 Mg / dl
    Serum Phosphorus: 3.5 – 5.5 Mg / dl
    Serum Amylase- 25 – 90U/L
    Serum Copper-70 – 150 Mg / dl
    C-reactive protein – <10 mg/L
    Creatine kinase (CPK)
  • Male- < 170 U/L
  • Female < 130 U/L
Serum Iron – Ferritin
  • Male -60 -170 µg / L
  • Female – 50 – 130 µg / L
Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT)
  • Male -11-50 U/L
  • Female – 07-32 U/L
Immunoglobulins
  • IgA – 0.8 – 4 g/L
  • IgG -5.5 – 16.5 g/L
  • IgM -0.4 – 2.0 g/L
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) – up to 4.0 µg / L
LIPIDS PROFILE should be done after 12 hours fasting
  • Serum total Cholesterol – 150 – 240 mg / dl
  • Serum Triglycerides – 70 – 150 mg / dl
  • Serum HDL cholesterol – 30 -70 mg / dl
  • Serum LDL cholesterol – 70 -130 mg / dl
  • Serum VLDL cholesterol – 20 – 40 mg / dl
URINE NORMAL VALUES
Calcium- 0 – 300 mg / 24 hours
Protein – <0.15 g / 24 hours
pH – 5.0 – 8.0
Specific Gravity – 1.001 – 1.035
RBC’s, WBC’s, Pus cells should be Nil


SUGAR TEST IN URINE should be done after 2 hours of food intake. Also collecting of mid-stream urine is important for accurate analysis. Presence of sugar is analyzed by two methods now, i.e. one by old benedict’s reagents and another by latest dipsticks. In case of Benedict’s test, if results shows


  • Blue colour – Nil
  • Green colour – + (0.1- 0.5 g/dl)
  • Yellow colour – ++ (0.5- 1.0 g/dl)
  • Orange colour – +++ (1.0- 1.5 g/dl)
  • Brick red colour – ++++ (1.5- 2.0 g/dl)

for new hope

Dr. S. Chidambaranathan, BHMS, MD (Homeo)
Laxmi Homeo Clinic
24 E. New Mahalipatti Road
Madurai, TN 625 001
India

Tel:  +91-452-233-8833 | +91-984-319-1011 (Mob)
Fax: +91-452-233-0196
E-mail:  drcheena@yahoo.com
www.drcheena.com / www.drcheena.in

(Disclaimer: The contents of this column are for informational purpose only. The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional healthcare advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of healthcare professional for any health problem or medical condition.)



Dr Cheena

Dr Cheena

Simple notes on Drcheena

Dr S. Chidambaranathan is a compassionate and highly skilled homeopathic doctor who has been rated as the Best Homoeopathic Doctor in Madurai.

Because of him “LAXMI HOMOEO CLINIC” is a “Healing Gateway” Imparting quality treatment to his patients with dignity and utmost care.

He is always reachable and concerned for comfort of the sick to cope up with their expectation. Because of his treatment with highest standard many patients were able to avoid surgeries in many incidences. In LAXMI HOMOEO CLINIC patients are treated with dignity, kindness and respect with privacy.

Further Dr S. Chidambaranathan helps the patients to manage their health on their own and to stay independent from all sorts of medicines as much as possible.

To cope up with ever changing trends in medicine and disease management he continues to upgrade his knowledge evident by the various papers presented
in different seminars and articles published online by him.

What is homeopathy ?

What is homeopathy ?
Homoeopathic medicines are very refined and are given in minimal and minute doses, so there are no side-effects. The system treats the patient as a whole i.e. mind and body, and makes one free of the disease condition, and prevents recurrence. Homoeopathic medicines can be used in all types of disease, at all ages, in all circumstances. By acting in a natural way it increases immunity. It also removes tendencies, allergies and thus helps mankind to live in a modern world that is highly polluted. It also reduces the impact of hereditary-familial diseases by raising the immunity level. Also, in some painful conditions like peptic ulcer, patients cannot take Allopathy painkillers since the ulcer will get aggravated. But in Homoeopathy we can treat in a better way the painful condition and peptic ulcer. Homoeopathy medicines act through nerve endings in the tongue – the doctor will merely ask the patient to place the medicine under the tongue and let it melt slowly – so they are no way related to the stomach or blood. So, even pregnant women can take these medicines safely.

Mode of taking Homeopathy Medicines

Homeopathy TreatmentUnder the diagnosis and advice of a qualified Homeopath, Homeopathy medicines will usually give comfort, calmness and hope to suffering mankind even in difficult cases, for some of which the modern medical world says nothing can be done. Homeopathic medicines can provide cure gently, promptly and permanently if they are taken properly. The medicine, its potency (power), its frequency (repetition), may vary according to the patient and the condition. Even with long time medications, Homeopathy medicines are completely safe and free from all sorts of side-effects and addiction. It can be safely used in infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly people and even in pregnant women.

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Wonders of Homeopathy

Best Homeopathy TreatmentHomeopathy is gaining in acceptance the world over due to its nature of treatment. Homeopathy does wonders when applied scientifically. As Homeopathy works on certain principles, it never fails within its limitations. However, a Homeopath may fail in treating the patient when he cannot elicit the characteristic symptom of the patient to match with the drug symptoms for selecting similimum (apt drug in right dosage). Homeopathy usually believes in internal treatment rather than topical applications or external interventions (removal of the disease or its effects using surgery, acids, freezing, burning, banding, laser, radiation, cauterization, ointments, liniments, oils, etc.) since internal medicines can only throw/expel the disease. Internal Homeopathic medicines treat patient as a whole by supporting the body’s own process of healing (immune mechanism) without any side-effects.

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The contents of this column are for informational purpose only. The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional healthcare advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of healthcare professional for any health problem or medical condition.

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