The nervous system by Dr S. Chidambaranathan B.H.M.S, M.D Homeopathy Doctor Madurai (Treatment avail for all people around the world)
In recent days, our mental and physical stress and strain, additive habits,sleeplessness, etc., has been causing more neurological problems. Nervous problem can occur due to various reasons, i.e. infection, inflammation, disease, damage, compression, toxicity of drugs, etc. The common nervous complaints are neuritis, cramp, headache, polio, paralysis, herpes, ganglion, injuries, paresis, weakness, epilepsy, Parkinson’s diseases, etc. It often produces complaints like numbness, loss of sensation, paresis, paralysis, burning pain, shooting/lightning pain, referred pain, radiating pain, blindness, hearing loss, loss of speech, loss of facial expressions, etc. To understand nervous problems and the way of soothing it, one needs to know about the nervous system.
The basic fundamental unit of the nervous system is the neuron. The neuron is a specialised cell that consists of cell body with nucleus, dendrite(s) and an axon. The axons are stems conducting/carrying impulses to the adjacent neuron. They are insulated with myelin sheath (made of lipids) for fast transmission of impulses without any leakage. The junction between two neurons is called as synapse. It acts as a filter or as an amplifier.
- Brain – is the main switch of wired network of our body. This super computer (brain) has uniqueness of mind and memory. It can receive impulses, interpret impulses, generate impulses, coordinate impulses and send impulses for actions.
- Spinal cord – is otherwise called the tail of the brain. It descends from the base of brain through an opening in the base of the skull into the vertebral column. It connects the brain and body through spinal nerves.
- Cranial nerves – emerges from the base of the brain or brain stem supplies and cares exclusively for the head with sensations and functions. They are 12 in numbers and named after their functions. They are olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, auditory, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerve.
- Spinal nerves – emerges from the spinal cord to supply body and peripherals. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves named after their emerging vertebral bones. They are cervical nerves (8 no/s), thoracic nerves (12 no/s), lumbar nerves (5 no/s), sacral nerves (5 no/s) and coccyx nerve (1 no).
- Sensory nerves (Afferent nerves) – which carries impulses to brain from peripherals
- Motor nerves (Efferent nerves) – which carries impulses from brain to peripherals
- Somatic nervous system – that works voluntarily with our control and consciousness for example – movement of hands/legs
- Autonomic nervous system – that works involuntarily/automatically without consciousness or control. Mostly these nerves inervates internal visceras / organs and helps in breathing, heart functions, digestion, etc. The autonomic nervous system is sub-classified as
- Sympathetic nerves – These nerves work for activating and accelerating functions. I.e. they function for vasoconstriction, dilating lungs, increasing heart rate with good strong contractions, dilating eye pupils, etc.
- Parasympathetic nerves – These nerves work for controlling and suppressing functions. They function for vasodilatation, constriction of lungs, reducing heart rate, constricting eye pupils, stimulating saliva secretion, assisting digestion with peristalsis, erectile function of penis, etc.
- Routine blood tests and urine tests
- X-ray chest and skull (in AP view and lateral view)
- CT/MRI scan
- Electroencephalography (EEG)
- Analysing cerebrospinal fluid with spinal puncture
- Angiogram, biopsy, etc. as required depending upon the suspected diagnosis of disease