- Inconvenient, painful and debilitating urination
- Waiting for a long time for the urinary flow to start up
- A slow flow of the urine stream with a decreased strength and force is felt while urinating.
- Inability to empty bladder fully. This is due to bladder outlet compression made by BPH. Due to this, stagnation occurs which favours infection. As the bladder cannot empty fully, urine may need to be passed quite frequently.
- Frequent night urination and urgency – due to irritated bladder from infection.
- Straining is required to force urine through the constricted urethra. This causes thickened bladder muscles. Constant straining may also cause the bladder muscles to weaken. Many men wake up in the morning with an erection and with an urge to urinate which cannot be implemented due to the erection. The bladder sphincter is designed to remain closed in the presence of an erection. This prevents any ejaculation that occurs from entering the bladder. When the valve gets damaged and an ejaculation occurs, the semen takes the shorter route into the bladder. This is called retrograde emission.
- Sometimes there is a strong desire to pass urine but only leakage of urine occurs without any continuity, leading to great discomfort and embarrassment.
- Occasionally, an enlarged prostate will cause blood to appear in the urine. The urine may look bloody or cloudy.
- Prostate enlargement can cause a complete blockage to urine flow. This then requires emergency treatment.
- In case of prostatis, fever may be present with lower abdominal pain and distention. There is also loss of appetite and fear to take water due to fear of urination. A hard lump in the angle of the thighs or rectum is felt which becomes painful when pressed.
Diagnostic tests also include blood test to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA), a cell surface protein normally found on prostate cells. Elevated PSA levels indicate an enlarged prostate, which may be caused by a benign or cancerous growth.
- Ultrasound scanning may provide detailed information.
- Cultures and microscopic examination of urine and prostatic secretions will also give a clear picture.
1) Prostatis (infections and inflammation)
- Transurethral resection of the prostate
- Transurethral incision of the prostate
- Open prostatectomy